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America has desegregated in name only More than half a century

America has desegregated in name only More than half a century


How Real Estate Segregated America

Board of Education: The First Step in the Desegregation of America's Schools

Linda Brown Smith was a third grader when her father started a class-action suit in 1951 of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.AP Photo

A doctor's office in Merigold, Mississippi in 1939Marion Post Wolcott / Library of Congress

An African American woman yells 'Freedom' when asked to shout so loud it will

the Supreme Court ruled that 'separate but equal' had no place in American schools.

Linda Brown (L), with sister Terry Lynn, sitting on a fence outside

Thurgood Marshall, the NAACP's chief legal counsel in Brown v. Board of Education and who later became the first black Supreme Court justice, is pictured ...

Walking into History: The Beginning of School Desegregation in Nashville

Police and reporters surround parents and children at Fehr Elementary, Nashville, TN, September

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Fred Stroud leads protest against desegregation, Nashville, TN, 1957. © Nashville Public

1963 march on washington.jpg

People crowd the room at a Nashville School Board hearing on desegregation, Nashville, TN

Nettie Hunt explaining to her daughter Nickie the meaning of the high court's ruling in the

America Has Desegregated in Name Only

The students for whom the famous Brown v. Board of Education case was brought,

A black man goes into the "colored" entrance of a movie theater in Belzoni, Mississippi, 1939.

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Isolated and Segregated

An African-American youth at a segregated drinking fountain in Halifax, North Carolina, in 1938.

American schools are as racially divided today as they were in the 1960s. Case in point: Charlotte, North Carolina. Illustration by Gluekit (Getty [4]; AP ...

The Rex theater for colored people, Leland, Mississippi, 1937

In Tuscaloosa today, nearly one in three black students attends a school that looks as if Brown v. Board of Education never happened.

Husband and Wife, Sunday Morning, Detroit, Michigan, 1950.

Grace McKinley takes Rita Buchanan and Linda McKinley to school among protesters, Nashville, TN

President Kennedy addresses nation on Civil Rights, 11 June 1963.jpg

Protesters in the street on the day Nashville schools were desegregated, Nashville, TN,


APSelma, Ala., March 9, 1965 Singing and clapping, young African Americans whip up their enthusiasm on the steps of a church, pending plans for an attempt ...

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door: Governor George Wallace attempts to block the enrollment of black students at the University of Alabama.


Desegregation opponents decorate a car for a protest parade, Nashville, TN, March 1956

Martin Luther King Jr. attends a press conference in Alabama in 1963

A memorial plaque at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Addie Mae Collins and Carole Robertson were ...

Early 20th century[edit]

Linda McKinley and Rita Buchanan hold hands as Grace McKinley walks ahead and supporters walk behind

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Crispus Attucks

George Wallace

End of de jure segregation

Oluale Kossola was taken from the Yoruba kingdom of Takkoi to Alabama in the 19th century

An extract from...Cause...And How It Doesn't Always Equal EffectGregory SmithsimonMelville House. Learn more

Sharon Bush Wasn't Invited to George H.W. Bush's Funeral

Martin Luther King Jr. at a Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.



Viggo Mortensen and Mahershala Ali in Green Book. Patti Perret / Universal Studios ...

Robert Kennedy speaking to civil rights demonstrators in front of the Justice Department on June 14

Portrait of Richard Allen

A school in Fort Meyer, Virginia. September 8, 1944.

Officials survey the wreckage of Hattie Cotton Elementary School, Nashville, TN, September 1957

Fannie Lou Hamer of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (and other Mississippi-based organizations) is an example of local grassroots leadership in the ...

19th century: American Civil War, emancipation, Reconstruction and Jim Crow[edit]


Sit-down strike,

A company of 4th USCT

From Ebony Magazine, April 1962.

A Life Is More Than a Moment, 50th Anniversary: The Desegregation of Little Rock's Central High: Ira Wilmer Counts, Will Davis Campbell, Ernest Dumas, ...

An African-American man drinking at a "colored" drinking fountain in a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City, 1939.

poll tax receipt

U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (201)

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. "

... others could not enroll at a seventh school for technical reasons; another three had pre-registered on August 27, but were not present on opening day.

Image caption A map of recent US Housing and Urban Development data shows segregated housing patterns. Each dot represents five people, ...

Clinton, Tennessee, school integration conflict, 1956. Gelatin silver print. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, ...

Diane Nash was chair of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and as such was nearly jailed

Nearly two-thirds of Phoenix's students of color attend an extremely segregated public school.

Robert Fahsenfeldt, owner of a segregated lunchroom in the racially tense Eastern Shore community of Cambridge, Maryland, douses a white integrationist with ...

A man holds a Confederate flag as demonstrators, including one carrying a sign saying 'More than 300,000 Negroes are Denied Vote in Ala', demonstrate in ...

African-Americans fighting fascism and racism, from WWII to Charlottesville


Are African American families more vulnerable in a largely white neighborhood? | Books | The Guardian

A map from the 1930s showing redlining mapping of Atlanta.

Sign for "colored" waiting room at a Greyhound bus terminal in Rome, Georgia, 1943.


'GoT' Season 8 Trailer Video Is Nothing Like We've Ever Seen

Map showing a large concentration of black residents in the north side of metropolitan Milwaukee.


Jim Crow & Segregation

The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration

Marine Commandant William Ward Burrows enforced a policy against enlisting "Blacks and Mulattoes". In America ...

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Norfolk Catholic High School, 1958 Enter Fullscreen More information